Is Hydroxyapatite Safe? A Dentist Explains

Yes, hydroxyapatite, including its nano-sized variant, is considered safe for use in toothpaste formulations. As a naturally occurring mineral found in human teeth and bones, hydroxyapatite is biocompatible and mimics the mineral composition of our teeth.

Research affirms its safety profile, highlighting its effectiveness in:

  • remineralizing enamel

  • strengthening tooth structure

  • and preventing tooth decay,

without inducing toxicity or adverse effects. Thanks to its safety profile, hydroxyapatite-based toothpastes are a suitable alternative to fluoride, particularly for individuals that are sensitive or simply those seeking fluoride-free toothpaste options.

Regulatory bodies such as the European Commission and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety have approved the use of hydroxyapatite, including nano hydroxyapatite, in toothpaste formulations within specified concentrations, further underscoring its safety for oral use.

In this article, I'll explain everything you need to know about hydroxyapatite toothpastes and safety.

So, what is hydroxyapatite?

A Hydroxyapatite in toothpaste

Hydroxyapatite (also referred to as simply "HA") is a naturally occurring mineral that is the primary inorganic component of human teeth and bones.

It is a crystalline structure composed of calcium and phosphate ions, making it a vital component of the hard tissues in our bodies. In fact, hydroxyapatite gives our teeth and bones their strength and hardness.

In the context of teeth, hydroxyapatite is a key component of tooth enamel, which is the outermost layer of the tooth surface. Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and it protects the underlying dentin and pulp of the tooth.

Hydroxyapatite is also used in various dental and medical applications, including dental implants, bone grafts, and as a biomaterial in orthopedic surgery.

Further, in hydroxyapatite toothpaste, it has restorative properties that are not limited to its protective barrier alone; it also contributes significantly to the remineralization process, aiding in the repair of microscopic enamel imperfections that are otherwise invisible to the naked eye.

How does hydroxyapatite work?

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste works through its ability to stimulate a process called remineralization. In toothpaste, hydroxyapatite particles restore and strengthen our tooth enamel by depositing calcium phosphate ions.

You see, when our enamel is exposed to acids produced by the bacteria that naturally live in our mouths or dietary acids/sugars, it can become demineralized. This leads to weakened enamel, tooth sensitivity, and tooth decay. If left untreated, that tooth decay can progress into full blown dental caries.

Since hydroxyapatite is a biometric compound and closely mimics the natural mineral composition of our teeth, it is easily able to remineralize enamel and protect us from all kinds of dental issues.

Studies also show that hydroxyapatite toothpaste can prevent plaque buildup which can otherwise lead to tartar development and cavities. Further, more research suggests that hydroxyapatite can also whiten teeth as the remineralization process may remove surface stains.

Does hydroxyapatite work?

Yes, hydroxyapatite toothpaste works to strengthen teeth and reverse tooth decay.

As a naturally occurring mineral found in teeth and bones, hydroxyapatite serves as a cornerstone in maintaining dental health. Its mechanism of action involves remineralizing enamel, strengthening tooth structure, and even whitening teeth.

Research suggests that hydroxyapatite toothpastes can effectively combat tooth decay by forming a protective layer on the tooth surface, shielding it from acid attacks and plaque buildup. Moreover, hydroxyapatite's biocompatibility and minimal adverse effects make it an appealing option for those seeking a fluoride-free toothpaste.

Overall, evidence supports the efficacy of hydroxyapatite in promoting oral health, making it a viable choice for individuals looking to maintain healthy teeth and gums. In fact, research finds that nano hydroxyapatite, a more effective derivative of hydroxyapatite, is just as effective as amine fluoride toothpastes at strengthening the enamel surface and remineralizing teeth.

So, is hydroxyapatite safe?

A Hydroxyapatite in Toothpaste

Yes, hydroxyapatite, alongside its smaller cousin nano hydroxyapatite, is safe to use in toothpaste. In fact, research indicates that nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste may have fewer safety concerns compared to fluoride toothpaste.

Nano hydroxyapatite particles and hydroxyapatite particles do not induce toxicity the way overconsumption of fluoride can. This is particularly important for certain populations such as:

  • pregnant women

  • children

  • people prone to tooth decay and cavities

  • people who live in environments with high fluoride concentrations in the water

This is likely because nano hydroxyapatite particles are biomimetic and safe as they are already a substance naturally present in our teeth, which makes them less likely to cause any harm when use.

Therefore, choosing nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste tablets can be your ideal step toward a safer and more effective oral care routine.

Hydroxyapatite Toothpaste Benefits

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste tablets are making waves for all of the incredible benefits they offer for your teeth. Here in this section, we'll explore some of the most important ones.

Remineralization and Tooth Decay Prevention

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste's ability to promote enamel remineralization is a significant advantage for maintaining oral health. Remineralization is the process of replenishing lost minerals in the enamel, strengthening it and making it more resistant to acid erosion and decay.

Hydroxyapatite, the main component of hydroxyapatite-based toothpastes, is chemically similar to the minerals found in teeth and bones. When used regularly, hydroxyapatite toothpaste deposits calcium and phosphate minerals onto the tooth surface, effectively remineralizing enamel and restoring its strength and integrity.

Moreover, hydroxyapatite toothpaste has been shown to be effective in preventing tooth decay by forming a protective layer on the tooth surface. This layer helps to shield the enamel from acids produced by bacteria in the mouth, which are the primary cause of decay.

By enhancing the remineralization process and providing a protective barrier against acid attacks, hydroxyapatite toothpaste contributes to overall oral health and helps reduce the risk of cavities and dental problems.

Moreover, nano hydroxyapatite functions to strengthen your enamel surface and increase the mineral density of your teeth. This process makes your teeth stronger and glossier while also decreasing your chances of tooth decay, leading to a radiant smile!

Cavity Prevention

a person holding teeth model

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste offers significant benefits in preventing cavities through its ability to remineralize teeth by replenishing your enamel with calcium and phosphate ions.

This remineralization process helps repair minor surface damage and fortify the enamel, reducing the risk of cavity formation over time.

While hydroxyapatite does not have the same FDA approval for dental caries prevention as fluoride and you cannot remineralize a cavity once it has fully formed, studies show that nano hydroxyapatite does indeed help remineralize initial caries lesions.

Reduces Teeth Sensitivity

a woman holding a cup

Even beyond caries prevention, hydroxyapatite is an effective desensitizing agent. Research shows that it is a safe material for reducing dentin hypersensitivity.

The protective layer formed by hydroxyapatite on the tooth surface helps cover exposed dentinal tubules, which are pathways that transmit sensations from the tooth's surface to the nerve inside. By blocking these tubules, hydroxyapatite toothpaste can reduce sensitivities to hot, cold, or sweet foods and beverages, providing much-needed relief for those with sensitive teeth.

Additionally, hydroxyapatite-based fluoride-free toothpaste provides a suitable option for individuals with specific sensitivities or allergies to fluoride or those that simply have a preference for fluoride-free oral care products.

Fights Bad Bacteria

A woman brushing her teeth

Hydroxyapatite-based toothpastes offers several benefits for maintaining a healthy oral microbiome.

Nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste, unlike fluoride toothpaste, has unique antibacterial properties. This is due to its unique composition, which closely mimics the mineral structure of tooth enamel and promotes a favorable environment for oral microbial balance.

A healthy mouth has a unique environment of bacteria in it. Using hydroxyapatite is helpful to reduce the growth of bad bacteria while sparing the good bacteria that protect your teeth.

A healthy oral microbiome is essential for overall oral health, as it plays a crucial role in preventing dental issues such as tooth decay and bad breath. Beneficial bacteria help protect against harmful pathogens by competing for resources and occupying ecological niches in the oral cavity.

By supporting the growth of these beneficial bacteria, hydroxyapatite toothpaste contributes to oral ecosystem equilibrium, reducing your risk of developing dysbiosis.

Prevents Dental Fluorosis

Dental fluorosis

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste offers a significant benefit in preventing dental fluorosis, a condition characterized by the discoloration and mottling of tooth enamel due to excessive fluoride exposure during tooth development.

You see, excessive use of fluoride products in dental care causes the discoloration of your teeth through a condition called dental fluorosis. Unlike fluoride toothpaste, which contains high levels of fluoride and carries the risk of fluorosis if ingested in excessive amounts, hydroxyapatite toothpaste provides a safe alternative.

Its fluoride-free formula eliminates the risk of fluorosis while still offering effective enamel remineralization and cavity prevention benefits. This makes hydroxyapatite-based toothpaste particularly suitable for children, who may be more susceptible to fluorosis if they ingest fluoride toothpaste while brushing their teeth.

Therefore, switching to a more natural formula, such as nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste can help preserve the beauty of your smile.

Provides Gentle Cleaning

A girl smiling

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste offers the benefit of providing gentle yet effective cleaning action, making it suitable for individuals with sensitive teeth or gums.

Unlike some traditional toothpaste or whitening toothpaste formulations that may contain abrasive ingredients, our hydroxyapatite toothpaste features a mild and non-abrasive formula. This gentle cleaning action effectively removes plaque and surface stains from the teeth without causing damage to the enamel or irritation to the gums.

Therefore, if you have sensitive teeth or gums, you'll be able to enjoy a gentle-yet-thorough cleaning experience without exacerbating any existing sensitivity issues.

Fluoride-Free Option

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste provides a better fluoride-free alternative for individuals who prefer natural or biocompatible oral care products.

Unlike many traditional toothpaste formulations that contain fluoride as a key ingredient for cavity prevention, hydroxyapatite toothpaste utilizes hydroxyapatite, a naturally occurring mineral found in teeth and bones, as its primary active ingredient.

This type of fluoride-free toothpaste addresses concerns about potential side effects or sensitivities associated with fluoride exposure, offering a safe and effective alternative for oral care.

By eliminating fluoride from its formula, hydroxyapatite toothpaste provides peace of mind for individuals who may be sensitive to fluoride or wish to avoid it due to personal preferences or specific health concerns.

Further, some individuals may experience adverse reactions to fluoride, such as gastrointestinal discomfort or allergic reactions. Additionally, there are concerns about potential long-term effects of fluoride consumption, particularly in young children who may inadvertently swallow toothpaste.

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste offers a natural and biocompatible option for reversing tooth decay, supporting enamel remineralization, and overall oral health without the potential risks associated with fluoride exposure.


A family brushing teeth

Hydroxyapatite toothpaste is a versatile tool suitable for individuals of all ages and varying oral health needs. Since it's gentle yet effective type of toothpaste, it's safe to be used by children,n adults, and people with unique oral health conditions like tooth sensitivity or enamel erosion.

This versatility makes hydroxyapatite toothpaste perfect for the whole family since a single oral care product will meet the needs of everyone in your household.

Further, hydroxyapatite toothpaste works well with other oral care products like expandable floss, tongue scraper, and alcohol free mouthwash to create a customized, natural oral health routine for your needs.

Safety of Hydroxyapatite vs. Fluoride Toothpaste

While both fluoride and hydroxyapatite toothpaste are generally safe for daily use, there are certain considerations for each.

For instance, overconsumption of fluoride, especially in young children, could lead to dental fluorosis, fluoride toxicity, and more. On the contrary, hydroxyapatite and nano hydroxyapatite are biomimetic and safe as they are the same substance naturally present in our teeth, which makes them less likely to cause any harm when use.

Hydroxyapatite-based toothpaste is a great alternative to fluoride toothpaste in promoting several benefits such as:

  • remineralization

  • reduction of dentin hypersensitivity

  • and prevention of dental caries

without the potential adverse health effects associated with excessive fluoride.

Therefore, switching to fluoride free toothpaste is the ideal step to consider in your oral care routine as it is a safe and beneficial choice for your oral health.

Hydroxyapatite vs. Nano Hydroxyapatite

Nano hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite are both forms of the same compound, but they differ slightly in efficacy and benefits while maintaining the same safety profile.

In fact, one paper from 2023 even stated, "Compared to HA, nHA is found to have superior properties such as increased solubility, high surface energy and better biocompatibility. This is due to the morphological and structural similarity of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles to tooth hydroxyapatite crystals."

Because nano hydroxyapatite particles are much smaller than hydroxyapatite, nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste is more effective at:

  • preventing tooth decay

  • strengthening teeth

  • soothing hypersensitivity

  • and whitening teeth and reducing discoloration.

Essentially, because hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are so small, they're better able to integrate into the tooth structure and remineralize enamel.

Therefore, in comparing hydroxyapatite vs nano hydroxyapatite, nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste provides increased oral hygiene benefits over hydroxyapatite toothpastes.

Is nano hydroxyapatite safe?

A girl brushing teeth

Yes, nano hydroxyapatite is safe. While nano particles have previously been scrutinized for safety, evidence suggests that they are safe at up to 10% nano hydroxyapatite concentration in toothpaste.

Not to mention, the inclusion of nano hydroxyapatite particles in toothpaste may offer a better alternative to fluoride, which has been associated with toxicity concerns in some cases.

Nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste has a number of oral care benefits, including:

  • Remineralizing capabilities

  • Strengthening tooth enamel

  • Preventing tooth decay

  • Reducing tooth sensitivity

  • and fighting dry mouth.

Thanks to these benefits and its biocompatible nature, nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste is a safe and effective alternative to fluoridated toothpastes.

Is nano hydroxyapatite approved in the EU?

Yes, nano hydroxyapatite is approved the EU. As of March 2023, the EU Scientific Committee of Consumer Safety determined "hydroxyapatite (nano) safe when used at concentrations up to 10% in toothpaste, and up to 0.465% in mouthwash".

This conclusion came after much research and debate over the safety and potential health risks of nano sized particles in oral cosmetics.

At biöm, we are proud to manufacture our toothpaste tablets with 5% rod-shaped nano hydroxyapatite in FDA-compliant facilities, ensuring the safest and most effective brushing experience for people of all ages, including pregnant women.

Why do people say nano hydroxyapatite is unsafe?

The argument that nano hydroxyapatite isn't safe largely comes from the fear surrounding nano particles. Because nano particles are small, some individuals worry about their potential to penetrate skin or mucous membranes.

However, these concerns only apply to needle-shaped nano hydroxyapatite which is banned by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and cannot legally be used in oral products.

Further, concerns about the safety of nano hydroxyapatite arise from concerns about quality control and changing guidelines from different regulatory bodies.

That's why, here at biöm, we're proud to manufacture our dental products with 5% rod-shaped nano hydroxyapatite in FDA-compliant facilities. In fact, that's what the "NOBS" in our NOBS Toothpaste Tablets stands for - no bad stuff. Get it?

What's the best concentration of nano hydroxyapatite in toothpaste?

A toothpaste tablets

The best concentration of nano hydroxyapatite in toothpaste is 5%. While some people and brands suggest that you need 10% nano hydroxyapatite in toothpaste, this assertion is verifiably false.

This sentiment comes from a misunderstanding of this study in which bovine teeth were soaked in a solution consisting of 0.1% nano hydroxyapatite dissolved in Powerade. Perhaps obviously, a study conducted by soaking teeth in a sports drink does not correlate with the best concentration of nano hydroxyapatite for remineralization in your toothpaste.

Further, a more recent study conducted by immersing teeth in solutions of varying concentrations of nano hydroxyapatite found that the 5% solution was just as effective at enhancing remineralization and improving tooth hardness as the 10% solution.

Another study even found that 5% nano hydroxyapatite is more effective at remineralization than 10%, likely due to aggregation issues seen at higher concentrations.

Therefore, toothpaste with 5% nano hydroxyapatite is effective for inducing remineralization and whitening benefits.

Can you swallow nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste?

Yes, you can swallow nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste, unlike fluoride toothpaste which can cause dental and skeletal fluorosis if overexposed.

For example, one study found, "swallowed HA particles are immediately dissolved in the acid environment of the stomach and do not pose any safety concern." Further, research states that there is no literature reporting any systemic or adverse effects of hydroxyapatite containing toothpastes.

That's why many people are turning to nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste as a safe, non-toxic alternative to fluoride toothpaste.

Tips for a Great Oral Care Routine

Using hydroxyapatite-based toothpaste isn't the only way to remineralize teeth.

Maintaining strong and healthy teeth requires a combination of good oral hygiene practices and lifestyle choices. Here are some additional tips to promote strong, healthy teeth:

Use Expandable Floss at Least Three Times per Week

Flossing is essential for removing food particles and plaque from between your teeth and along the gumline, where your toothbrush may not be able to reach.

Expandable floss is designed to expand and adapt to the contours of your teeth, providing thorough cleaning. We recommend flossing at least three times per week (preferably daily) to prevent prevent plaque buildup and reduce your risk of gum disease.

Limit Acidic Foods in Your Diet

As discussed earlier, acidic foods and beverages, such as citrus fruits, carbonated sodas, and certain sauces, can weaken tooth enamel and contribute to enamel erosion over time.

Limiting your consumption of acidic foods helps reduce the risk of acid-related enamel damage. If you do consume acidic items, consider rinsing your mouth with water afterward or using an alkaline mouthwash to help neutralize acids and minimize their effects on your teeth.

Use Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Alcohol-free mouthwash can be a gentler choice for oral care. Alcohol-based mouthwashes can sometimes lead to dry mouth, which can increase the risk of dental issues.

An alcohol-free mouthwash can help freshen your breath, reduce the growth of harmful bacteria, and provide additional support for your oral hygiene routine without causing dryness.

Plus, you can use alcohol free mouth everyday, and it's safe for kids to use too.

Summary: Is hydroxyapatite toothpaste safe?

Yes, hydroxyapatite toothpaste is considered safe for oral use. Derived from a naturally occurring mineral found in human teeth and bones, hydroxyapatite is biocompatible and closely mimics the mineral composition of tooth enamel.

Research supports its safety and effectiveness in promoting oral health, including remineralizing enamel, reducing tooth sensitivity, and preventing tooth decay.

Regulatory authorities, such as the European Commission and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, have approved the use of hydroxyapatite in toothpaste formulations within specified concentrations, further confirming its safety for daily oral care.

Overall, hydroxyapatite toothpaste offers a gentle yet effective alternative to fluoride-based products, providing a natural and biocompatible option for maintaining strong and healthy teeth.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the issues with hydroxyapatite?
There are no known issues with hydroxyapatite. In fact, there are no known disadvantages or side effects of nano hydroxyapatite in toothpaste. Research states that there is no literature reporting any systemic or adverse effects of hydroxyapatite containing toothpastes. That's why many people are turning to nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste as a safe, non-toxic alternative to fluoride toothpaste.

Why did Europe ban hydroxyapatite?
Hydroxyapatite is not banned in Europe. As of March 2023, the EU Scientific Committee of Consumer Safety determined "hydroxyapatite (nano) safe when used at concentrations up to 10% in toothpaste, and up to 0.465% in mouthwash". This conclusion came after much research and debate over the safety and potential health risks of nano sized particles in oral cosmetics.

Do dentists recommend hydroxyapatite?
Yes, dentists recommend hydroxyapatite, especially in its application within oral care products and dental treatments. Hydroxyapatite's biometric nature and natural resemblance to tooth enamel makes it a valuable ingredient in toothpaste and dental materials. It is effective in promoting enamel remineralization, reducing tooth sensitivity, and preventing tooth decay.

Is hydroxyapatite safe to swallow?
Yes, hydroxyapatite is safe to swallow because it is a non-toxic and biocompatible mineral that occurs naturally in our bodies. When hydroxyapatite particles are ingested, they dissolve completely in the stomach, posing no risk to systemic health. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been utilized in dental procedures, orthopedics, bone repair, and cancer treatment for many decades, making it particularly safe for children.

Is hydroxyapatite bad for your teeth?
No, hydroxyapatite is not bad for your teeth. In fact, it is beneficial for dental health. Hydroxyapatite is a mineral that makes up the majority of tooth enamel and plays a crucial role in maintaining tooth strength and integrity. It can help remineralize enamel, making teeth more resistant to decay and erosion. Additionally, hydroxyapatite is often used in dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash to support oral health.

Is hydroxyapatite safer than fluoride?
Yes, hydroxyapatite is considered safer than fluoride in toothpaste. While fluoride is effective for dental issues, studies suggest that nano hydroxyapatite may be equally effective with fewer risks of systemic toxicity. Certain populations, like pregnant women and those at risk for dental fluorosis, will benefit from switching to nano hydroxyapatite toothpaste.

Is hydroxyapatite non-toxic?
Yes, hydroxyapatite in toothpaste is non-toxic. It is a safe and biocompatible mineral that is commonly used in dental care products. Hydroxyapatite is naturally found in our teeth and bones, making it well-suited for oral applications. When included in toothpaste, hydroxyapatite can help remineralize enamel, strengthen teeth, and reduce sensitivity without posing any significant health risks. Its non-toxic nature makes it suitable for use by people of all ages, providing a safe option for maintaining oral health and hygiene.

NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets
NOBS Toothpaste Tablets

NOBS Toothpaste Tablets

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NOBS is everything toothpaste should be - all the good stuff, and none of the junk.

Fluoride Free
Never any fluoride, and no harsh abrasives.

We used the magical remineralizing power of 5% nano-hydroxyapatite to protect your teeth long-term. It's the safest alternative to fluoride!

Unlike messy tube toothpaste, NOBS are easy to store and use anywhere.

Thanks to our unique blend of natural ingredients, NOBS will make your breath as fresh as you look. Instead of gross sweeteners that cover up a natural slightly bitter aftertaste, our organic mint will leave you so kissable. Trust us, your date will thank you.

Cleans Effectively Without Damaging Enamel

With an enviable RDA of 21.38, NOBS Toothpaste Tablets are intentionally designed to help you gently buff out surface stains and break up plaque biofilm without causing damage to your enamel. Thanks, baking soda!

Flex on TSA

NOBS toothpaste tablets don’t apply to the 3.4oz limit. Fly with confidence that you won’t be condemned to a dirty mouth while you travel.

No Mess

Never worry about your toothpaste tube exploding over your other toiletries. NOBS toothpaste tablets come in an air-tight glass jar, free of plastic and without the mess. Unscrew, chew, and renew your mouth.

No Plastic

We want you to disrupt your brushing routine, not your endocrine system. Unlike other brands, our product is free of all plastics and BPAs.

Perfect Size

NOBS toothpaste tablets are individual and perfectly dosed. No more squeezing, no more tube sliding against the edge of your sink and definitely no wasted toothpaste.

Safe for Children

Protecting little ones is our top priority. NOBS provides the safest oral care for pregnant women and their families. Just monitor and ensure that your child can chew and swallow safely before introducing them to NOBS.

This product is not suitable for pets. Humans only, please!

While xylitol is great for supporting the human oral microbiome, it can be toxic to pets. Please keep NOBS away from your furry friends, and contact your veterinarian immediately if consumed by your pet.

Fluoride Free Toothpaste Tablets